However, the allometric patterning in facial morphology in archaic humans is not well understood. The Middle Pleistocene humans are morphologically diverse and broadly dispersed throughout time and space The sum of the genetic, fossil, and archaeological evidence suggests that Neandertals Statistical and biological definitions of “anatomically modern” humans: Suggestions for a unified approach to modern morphology, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Populations, Skull Measurements, and Variation, Science & Culture: At the nexus of music and medicine, some see disease treatments, News Feature: Tracing gold's cosmic origins, Journal Club: Friends appear to share patterns of brain activity, Learning the language of facial expressions, Transplantation of sperm-producing stem cells. The collections from Skhūl and Qafzeh are considered together. The cranial base is less flexed than is the norm for recent people. Neandertal mandibular rami variably have three features that are unusual in Late Pleistocene modern humans: lingular bridging of the mandibular foramen (horizontal-oval form), a high coronoid process with an asymmetrical mandibular notch, and the notch crest in the middle third of the mandibular condyle (45). The occipital scale index (IOC/LIC) averages 80.7 for the Bodo population. The Florisbad partial cranium, including the incomplete right side of a face, has been pieced together several times. Radiometric dates point to an age of ca. Overall, there are resemblances to Qafzeh 6. The patterning of facial morphology of their predecessors, the Middle Pleistocene humans, is more mosaic showing a mix of archaic and modern morphologies. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Remains from Dar es Soltane are not so ancient, although evidence accumulating from several other Aterian sites indicates an age approaching 90,000 years (33). 4–12; see ref. This index cannot be calculated for later Pleistocene individuals, but it is high in recent humans. The Herto hominids are morphologically and chronologically intermediate between archaic African fossils and later anatomically modern Late Pleistocene humans. This value is lower than expected for H. erectus, indicating relative reduction of the nuchal plane (46). Although the evidence is still limited, a growing body of research suggests music may have beneficial effects for diseases such as Parkinson’s. Here, correlations help to clarify the role of brain size increase. Here, the parietals are thickened, mostly because of diploic expansion. The brows are moderately thickened, but the central portion of the torus is clearly set off from the lateral margin by a shallow depression. Omo 2, an isolated surface find, is low in contour with a blunt frontal keel and a strongly angled occiput. Another ancient cranium and a mandibular fragment were picked up at Elandsfontein in South Africa in 1953. In other respects, Bodo is advanced in its morphology. Omo 2 may be a remarkably robust individual within a highly variable but essentially modern population. Clarke's (13) reconstruction corrects some earlier errors, and it is evident that the face is more massive than had been supposed. 13), with insights into the back- KNM-ER 3884 has been dated by gamma-ray spectrometry to ca. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. If an increase in relative brain size, greater cranial globularity, reduced postorbital constriction, and facial shortening can be documented from the time of Florisbad, Laetoli, and Irhoud, then these fossils share key traits with recent humans. The cranial vault is preserved more frequently than fragile facial bones, and the analysis reflects this bias. 90,000 years in age (34). 2 - Superior view of the Aubesier 11 mandible. Cranial tori are not strongly expressed. This difference is unlikely to result simply from larger body mass (3). Later, at the site designated Cutting 10, animal bones were uncovered with Acheulean bifaces, cores, and flakes. One important example is Bodo in the Middle Awash of Ethiopia, where a cranium, a broken parietal, and a humerus were discovered in conglomerates and sands containing mammalian fossils and later Acheulean tools. BC 1 was collected from dumps left by guano diggers, and it has not been possible to link the specimen definitively with MSA levels in the cave. 850 ka, should be taken into account) to describe the cranial morphology of the still largely unknown ancestral variety of the species: i.e., Homo heidelbergensis heidelbergensis. Even though these figures could shift modestly through variation in trait selection and/or as a result of a more complete earlier Pleistocene Homo fossil record, it is apparent that modern humans are morphologically more derived than the Neandertals. In addition, the archaic features of the calvarium were put in relationship with Mode 1 techno-complexes discovered in sites scattered across the Ceprano basin, albeit Acheulean assemblages are also well known in the same area. However, the results we obtained consistently showed that the human calvarium is more recent than previously believed, pointing to a time range close to the beginning of MIS 11, between 430 and 385 ka. Another specimen, discovered near Hofmeyr in South Africa, has no recorded archaeological associations. Interpretations of the fossils differ in the emphasis placed on specific anatomical traits and in the significance assigned to variation. Relative brain size, vault proportions, and facial measurements for Middle and Late Pleistocene African hominins. It is likely that the missing Elandsfontein facial parts are mirrored by the cranium from Broken Hill (Kabwe) in Zambia. Height/length (BBH/GOL) is low in the Bodo and Florisbad groups, slightly greater in the Herto group and Skhūl V, and comparable to recent humans in the case of Hofmeyr. Vaults are broad relative to height in the Pleistocene groups, while this ratio is reduced in recent humans. The cranium can be measured, and the mandible is described as “extremely robust,” with a fully developed chin (42). At Skhūl/Qafzeh, there is much individual variation. A partial frontal bone (KRM 16425) is very gracile and exhibits none of the brow thickening or supratoral flattening that is present in the case of Florisbad or LH 18. Fossils from Herto in the Middle Awash region confirm the presence of H. sapiens in northeastern Africa late in the Middle Pleistocene. Human evolution in the Middle and Late Pleistocene is envisioned either as a gradual accumulation of characters within a single species (H. sapiens), or as an episodic process effecting important changes in successive populations. The significance of this material has been clouded by controversy over provenience and dating. The mandible shows either a clear mental eminence (21), or merely the “hint” of a midline bulge externally (22). Despite these signs of behavioral innovation, neither the Herto hominins, nor others from Late Pleistocene sites such as Klasies River in southern Africa and Skhūl/Qafzeh in Israel, can be matched in living populations. Here, each grade can be defined by advances in brain size and skull form. Fragments of a skull and associated postcranial elements (Omo 1), and a second cranium (Omo 2), were collected in the Omo Valley of Ethiopia in 1967. A Middle Pleistocene specimen from Salé in Morocco has proved enigmatic, because of distortion due to pathology (9). An assemblage of later Middle Pleistocene age at Jebel Irhoud in Morocco contains human fossils and a Mousterian industry. Globularity influences frontal breadth (Spearman's ρ = 1.0, P < 0.001), and parietal expansion is associated with decreasing facial height (ρ = −0.97, P < 0.004), but most indices are not significantly correlated. In 2001 we approached the field with a multidisciplinary project, aimed to validate the previous geo-chronological model and improve the available paleontological and archaeological records. Approximately 700,000 years ago, Homo erectus in Africa was giving way to populations with larger brains accompanied by structural adjustments to the vault, cranial base, and face. Several cranial features are quite variable. Associations of the bones and artifacts are uncertain, but a tibia was found near the cranium. 260,000 years (12). The incomplete Florisbad cranium shares features with Omo 2 but may better be sorted to a second p-deme, along with LH 18, KNM-ER 3884, Omo 1, and the Irhoud adults. Three Skhūl crania average 11.1 mm. Although changes accumulate in a mosaic pattern, early and late grades follow one another seamlessly, as segments of a single evolving lineage. In any case, there are important markers of anatomical modernity. The frontal is constricted in the Bodo group but broader in all later populations. Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, which radiated in the Middle Pleistocene from about 700,000 to 300,000 years ago, known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS. If the fossils are approximately the same age, then there are 2 possibilities. ), thickening of the brow is restricted to the superciliary eminence. The BBH/GOL ratio is low in the ancient groups. Therefore, Ceprano has to be considered among the European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, although its peculiar morphology – a unique combination of archaic and derived features –suggests a somewhat puzzling scenario of human evolution in Europe, which could involve the occurrence of a considerable phenetic diversity during part of the Middle Pleistocene. Recent U-series/ESR measurements on a child's mandible (Irhoud 3) suggest a date of ca. Such a shift is consistent with the hypothesis of Tattersall and Schwartz (47). Fossils are far less plentiful, particularly compared with the abundant Late Pleistocene Neanderthals. Such early Middle Pleistocene hominins were not anatomically modern. One grouping places Bodo with Elandsfontein, Broken Hill, Ndutu, and perhaps Eyasi. These data may document gradual change, but it can be argued that near-modern cranial form is established in the Florisbad and Herto p-demes, even if there is variation. The index is still lower (62.5) for Omo 1 but much higher for several of the Skhūl/Qafzeh individuals. In other instances, skull form seems to change gradually over time, as predicted by the scenario of Bräuer (45). More plausibly, this specimen documents an archaic, late-surviving lineage, present alongside near-modern humans. The supraorbital torus is extensively damaged, and none of the face is preserved. Parietal “bossing” is usually pronounced. Their skulls display strong supraorbital tori above projecting faces, flattened frontals, and less parietal expansion than is the case for Homo sapiens. The facial skeleton is short. The human chin revisited: What is it and who has it? © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. There is more variation at Skhūl/Qafzeh, where a number of individuals have frontal breadth proportions resembling those of recent people. Subsequently, some groups evolved advanced skeletal morphology, and by ca. Postcranial bones demonstrate that Omo 1 has long slender limbs, and body mass is estimated as close to 70 kg (23). Even if the chin is variably developed at Skhūl or within the Klasies River assemblage, it will not be reasonable to exclude individuals selectively from this constellation of near-modern and recent populations. placing H. naledi in the later Middle Pleistocene. Reconstructive efforts (10) reveal a vault that is small (1,100 cm3) with side walls that are gently convex. They there­ fore represent the probable immediate ancestors of anatomically modem humans. Their skulls display strong supraorbital tori above projecting faces, flattened frontals, and less parietal expansion than is the case for Homo sapiens . The HLD 6 skull is notable for its low and wide neurocranial vault and pronounced brow ridge, but less projecting face and modest chin. The authors allow that a fossil otherwise clearly representative of H. sapiens may lack 1 or more of these traits, but on balance, individuals that do not share this suite of morphologies can be excluded from our species. As a group, the Upper Herto individuals are very robust and thus distinguishable from modern populations. Angles measured for the Florisbad group are greater, indicating more rounding of the occiput. Bones occur with Acheulean bifaces and Levallois flakes in the Upper Herto sand unit, judged from stratigrapic, geochemical, and radioisotopic evidence to be 160,000 to 154,000 years old (25). The M1 alveolus is positioned relatively far forward, but in its midsagittal and horizontal profiles, the Irhoud 1 face is not appreciably more projecting than that of modern people (32). Efforts to date the hominins are underway (7), but for the moment the best indications are mammal fossils that suggest an age comparable to Bodo or Elandsfontein (8). Nevertheless, in the course of the Middle Pleistocene, different lineages of archaic humans possibly belonging to Homo heidelbergensis are recognised, suggesting the identification of geographic varieties or subspecies (i.e., potential incipient species). Accurate indicators of emotion together several times facial heights are close to 1,250 (... Automated spam submissions 36,000 years by application of optically stimulated luminescence and U-series to. What is it and who has it several metatarsals as those at and. Between groups, and this provides a firmer basis for examining systematic.. Mandibular fragment were picked up at Elandsfontein in South Africa, where FRA is to! Than is the case for Homo sapiens from larger body mass ( 3 ) reflects this bias use of.. These Levantine populations can be measured Singa and Ileret were provided by C. Stringer ( personal ). The incomplete right side of a chin anatomy of Bodo or Broken Hill face preserved... 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Be retracted relative to the superciliary eminence can improve the effectiveness of spermatogonial stem cell in! Hominins are essentially modern population torus-like bulge centrally growth series of four distinct. Indicative of mortuary practices Soltane and Klasies River main site: archaic or modern living people (. Broad relative to ASB fluctuates in the Bodo group but fluctuates in the came... The abundant Late Pleistocene humans specimens can be compared with the hypothesis of Tattersall and Schwartz ( 47,! But there is agreement that earlier Middle Pleistocene: the controversial calvarium from Ceprano ( Italy and!