Adapted from Figure 1 in FASS, 2010. Handling Healthy, Even-Tempered Animals. 0000179672 00000 n 0000076159 00000 n 0000007144 00000 n In addition, the cross-references in ‘see also’ and the websites cover the design and layout of chutes and races and these references are an important supplement to this article. If the facility is designed well, no equipment may be needed and the natural behaviors of the animal can be used to move them. Minimum space allowances during transportation for different livestock species. A remarkable difference in handling effects depending on the handling procedure is described by Swaim et al. 0000171198 00000 n It also requires that an electric prod is not used or any other aggressive form of handling such as hitting, dragging, etc. Handling or restraining an animal correctly means you do it humanly and a way that is safe for you and the animal. In general, low stress methods are advocated as they are more humane and improve welfare, reduce handling time and frustration, potentially improve production performance and ultimately reduce bruising and enhance carcass quality. It also creates great expense for local animal shelters and may require regional and national efforts to find homes for large numbers of animals. Immobilization can normally be achieved with the use of stereotaxic restraint systems combined with the correct choice of anesthesia. H�\��j�0����l/J=�(]�؁e{��V:��'���O�K3$�gl闥�X?��N���A78Ag� 8��.x�N%���.�u�z�Qp3�����dt8Na���\��-�]a�ul��57��G7AU;J���׶G�bت6tn�yE17>g�P�}��у�ѷC�(TN�u�U t��y�Oa�N�A��/�9�P�Cd�6O�I�ږ�I���I�׉����[�]��>�����|NLE*�j�\�L^��d�/9��$�0'/�^2yI���f~����� �U�J It also can make your dog more social, and even increases his ability to learn. 0000170696 00000 n 0000146960 00000 n In the case of chipmunks, allowing the animal to bite a gloved finger allows the handler to secure the back of its head with the thumb. There is a delicate balance between holding an animal too firmly, which could result in animal injury or death, and holding an animal too loosely, which could result in escape or handler injury. To do so, calm handling methods should be used, and trailers should be designed to minimize slipping, protect the animal from environmental stressors, and provide adequate space per head (Table 4; National Pork Board, 2008). 0000076413 00000 n Handling animals on the farm. Each animal is scored as either silent or as a vocalizer. They may not be dragged, hoisted, or dropped. : Can. In addition, the emergence and development of MR-compatible equipment for electroencephalography (EEG) now makes it possible to record electrical activity simultaneously or interleaved during the MR data acquisition. Livestock handling and sorting equipment: (a) rattle paddle, (b) flag, (c) electric prod, and (d) sort board/panel. Control is a key to successful handling. There are several different styles of equipment used to move animals. Corticosterone (and also prolactin) showed a greater response to stress at the crest level of the adrenal rhythm than at the trough. The magnitude of the response should be proportional to the stress level, duration, and frequency, and stress-related changes do not generally occur at doses at which there are no test article-related changes. Grazing animals are a prey species, and fear motivates them to escape from perceived danger. Increase in corticosterone level follows after an initial increase of plasma ACTH concentration and this may partially explain the different time patterns of these hormones in plasma. 0000179699 00000 n However, the interpretation of alterations in thymus weights of NHPs in relation to stress, immunotoxicity, and normal physiology is complicated by the high degree of variability between animals [44] because thymic involution occurs naturally with age and follows an individual time course (see Section “Challenges for Diagnosing Test Article-Related Immune Suppression in Lymphoid Tissue”). If gloves are not used, the hands should be clear of all potential chemical contaminants, especially insect repellent. This tutorial will outline recommended techniques for handling rodents, rabbits and ferrets. At this time relatively little is known about the effects of good handling on improved welfare and performance in beef cattle whereas more information is available on the effects of handling on milk production. These times corresponded to crest and trough of the adrenal rhythm in their laboratory conditions. Dogs can be … 0000011500 00000 n An objective numerical scoring system for animal handling and stunning makes tracking improvements possible. 0000139370 00000 n This process necessitates handling the animal on a regular basis when no procedures are performed. Thus tail-holding should be used to secure the animal to prevent escape, and animals should not be held up by their tails. Chapter 5: Animal handling and transport. Heather M. Schellinck, ... Richard E. Brown, in Advances in the Study of Behavior, 2010. Medical Advancement: The most obvious advantage of animal testing is for medical experimentation. With particularly feisty species, securing the animal's body as well as the head is necessary. Regardless of production system, animal handling is necessary and inevitable. Likewise, Hennesy and Levine (1978) did not find a significant change in mouse plasma corticosterone concentration after a simple handling procedure (blood sampling 30 min post handling, 0.75–1.25 h after lights on, by “anesthetizing and decapitating…”; 3–4 mice/pan). Animal hoarders have problems with acquiring animals and handling, managing, and getting rid of them. Animal is at the front … Des Moines, IA: National Pork Board. Experiment with cardboard. In mice, given a hepatotoxic dose of 30 mg/kg CCl4, the mean ALT activity was about 3-fold greater in mice handled by the body than in mice grasped by the tail only. Percentage that slip and fall down during unloading, driving, restraint, and in the stun box. Purchase of MR-compatible anesthesia systems can alleviate many issues; however, these systems often are expensive. Avoid lifting stock wherever possible. The behavioral principles of animal handling have been discussed in the article ‘Behavior of Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, Bison, and Deer during Handling and Transport’. Picking up the rat from its home cage, handling the animal during 15 sec and returning it to its cage causes an increase in corticosterone level as measured in serum from blood obtained 15 min later by decapitation (Armario et al. If animals get a reward in an apparatus, they will jump out of their home cage and into the test chamber quite readily. Hennesy and Levine (1978) reported an increased corticosterone level in rats 15 min after lifting the animals from their home cage by their tail and then returning them (2 rats/cage). 0000004819 00000 n B.L. startxref 3. Flight zone showing how to effectively move an animal. There are also five acts of abuse that will result in an automatic failure of the audit: (1) dragging nonambulatory animals; (2) intentionally slamming gates on animals; (3) poking sensitive areas of the animal, such as in the rectum or eyes; (4) intentionally driving animals over the top of a downed animal; and (5) beating an animal. The variables are: Percentage of animals stunned correctly on the first attempt. For example, when trapping mice, the animal can be transferred from a trap to a clear plastic bag prior to handling. However, in today’s world, reasons for catching wild species are more diverse. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Plasma growth hormone concentration was markedly decreased at that time. 0000010127 00000 n Practical activity: handling and restraining animals using a variety of equipment, for a variety of reasons. This gentle “dance” of us applying pressure, the animal moving away from the pressure and us releasing the pressure is the main method of getting our animals to move for us i… Each variable is scored on a yes/no basis for each animal. 0000009333 00000 n Also other types of stress responses are apparent after handling. Record a fall if the body touches the ground. Handling animals during routine husbandry practices should be performed in a careful, considerate, respectful, and calm manner. A mouse which is pinched or squeezed when taken out of an apparatus will learn that the test is associated with pain and may behave differently on a second test. It benefits the animals you care for, creates a desirable working atmosphere, and benefits the customers you serve. Champaign, IL: Federation of Animal Science Societies and National Pork Board, 2008. The 28 h law regulates the maximum time animals are able to be held in trailers without food, water, and rest before being unloaded. Question: Describe The Importance Of Ethics When Handling Animals In A Scientific Research. Bisonand other livestock will respond to pressure we put on them as we place ourselves into their comfort or flight zone. (1985). If you’re self-isolating 0000002073 00000 n Understanding proper handling and restraint methods will minimize stress on the animals and reduce the risk of … Post handling conditions - like return to home cage group members, placement in a waiting cage, keeping the animal isolated in a novel environment - may contribute to the stress responses that are reported, but these aspects are not often taken into consideration. In addition, there are a variety of instruments that can be used to control and subdue larger animals. The animal facility should have clothing which would be suitable for work in the animal facility. 0000147288 00000 n But, the period for which the animal is kept within the restraint should be minimum (Calapai et al., 2017). 0000101692 00000 n Moreover, many animals will jump from the apparatus into their home cage, especially after a test involving shock. Animals experience hunger, thirst, fear, sickness, injury and strong maternal instincts. The evidence for stress is stronger if the biology of the test article and its target is not related to the effects of stress that typically occur. The handler should remain calm and attentive. J. Physiol. Rahul Maheshwari, ... Rakesh K. Tekade, in Dosage Form Design Parameters, 2018. 0000005866 00000 n The use of careful handling procedures may reduce many experimenter effects. Because their skin is a respiratory organ, great care should be taken when handling them. M.J. Cramer, in Principles of Animal Research for Graduate and Undergraduate Students, 2017. H�\�Mn�0��9��tQ�qb�H(�X�G�=@H�8� n_3ϢR#�˛�. Any animal with a mouth can bite, and biting should be anticipated. Most bite, scratch, kick, and crush injuries from animals can be prevented by using appropriate restraint and following established procedures. (1989) measured body temperature in individually housed mice with a telemetry monitoring system. trailer Oxytocin is also released in humans when they touch dogs. 0000004134 00000 n When placing mice in a swim task, we place them in gently, tail first and try to prevent their heads from going underwater as they will often then sink to the bottom in a “dive reflex” and must be resuscitated. In general, altered circulating leukocyte counts and increased adrenal gland and decreased thymus weights are the most sensitive parameters that indicate stress; the less sensitive indicators of stress (e.g., reproductive effects) do not occur in the absence of the more sensitive indicators. One of the first components of safe animal handling is being able to read an animal’s state of mind. Waste disposal should also be done regularly for which incineration is the most preferred method. There are many components to handling animals safely and all staff should be versed in this area, including front desk and management. T. Grandin, in Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, 2010. 146 66 Not all investigators, however, report these changes of plasma hormonal levels after handling. The flight zone varies by animal and how calm it is, with a larger flight zone in more excited animals and calmer animals having a smaller flight zone. 0000147797 00000 n Confident — they will always react with firm, sure movements and will always be 'the boss' while avoiding getting overexcited. endstream endobj 210 0 obj <>/Size 146/Type/XRef>>stream Handling an animal safely begins with knowing the animal’s typical behavior. �66�6H�1��L/� �ry�V���[ZGGG�%(�` ����D m�`i~!�\ These are usually made of plastic materials that are easy to manufacture, nonferrous (i.e., non-magnetic), and easy to clean. An increase in body temperature develops rather slowly, but may persist for a long time after the stress experience. b��,��1O�J�.uLi�f���#Q����a^#G�^�',G$&�[-���s�ck���}�I����3'����� �D&-�:p��kB�S+=���n ��d�8�R'n�À�b�@� �a|���0�I>f��Pym ��@�@����Υ��\�X?��� �ٜ�p������6 M�P( endstream endobj 147 0 obj <>/ViewerPreferences<>/Outlines 14 0 R/Metadata 21 0 R/AcroForm 148 0 R/Pages 20 0 R/StructTreeRoot 23 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 148 0 obj <> endobj 149 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 150 0 obj <> endobj 151 0 obj <> endobj 152 0 obj <> endobj 153 0 obj <> endobj 154 0 obj <> endobj 155 0 obj [/ICCBased 176 0 R] endobj 156 0 obj <> endobj 157 0 obj <> endobj 158 0 obj <>stream 211 0 obj <>stream Electric prods should only be used in specific situations on the hindquarters when all other attempts to move the animal have been made, and less than 10% on ranches or feedlots. The ‘dark movie theater’ Effect – When animals are moving from bright sunlight into a dark building, they will often balk because they cannot see where they are going. Generally, physical restraint should be used to hold the animals as it limits the movement of the animals and thus, allows for easy collection of samples to minimize the stress level on the animals. Beef, swine and dairy cattle are generally colorblind and have poor depth perception. - 1985). Stress-related changes to immunological end points in routine toxicity studies may be differentiated from direct immune suppression by a weight-of-evidence approach [42]. Handling similarly caused in rats an increase in core temperature, which was evident for a number of hours (Gallaher et al. Backus, ... K. Guay, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014. Institutions should employ people who are trained (pharmacologist, veterinary scientists) for handling laboratory animals and should provide both formal as well as some on-duty training to ensure the proper handling of animals for which certain refresher training as well as induction programmes are run by certain animal welfare committees in different institutes and universities. Cattle, pigs, horses, sheep, dogs and other farm animals can be unpredictable and should be treated with caution at all times. In some cases, its eyes and face can be covered, which tends to reduce the stress of handling (Rudran and Kunz, 1996). 0000004271 00000 n Handle cooperatively rather than forcefully. With the typical small group sizes in NHP studies, stress effects are more likely to show a wider variation between animals in the same group than direct immunologic effects. During a disaster response, tasks such as rescuing displaced or injured animals or administering first aid or other medical treatment will require the handling of companion animals. Approach, Handling and Control of Animals 72. As so many factors are present during transportation, it is hard to discern the most stressful component, therefore every factor of transportation should be accounted for and overall well-being of the livestock considered, reducing stress from transportation. Proper cleanliness should be maintained by the animal care staff. 0000101946 00000 n - 1986b). Nonambulatory animals should be isolated from ambulatory animals and moved with carts, sleds, canvas tarpaulins, or slide boards. Having control over where an animal bites can reduce any surprise attacks that could lead to escape. a zookeeper may work regularly in conjunction with the zoo vet , zoo vet tech , curator , and commissary staff ). Growth hormone levels declined in response to stress and this decrease was unaffected by the time of the day. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Many US regulatory agencies, such as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Department of Transportation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Food Safety and Inspection, govern animal transportation to ensure the humane transport and prevention of the transmission of communicable diseases (ILAR, 2011). 17.1 the corticosterone responses are depicted. 0000006606 00000 n The use of home-cage testing eliminates the need for handling. T. Grandin, in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences (Second Edition), 2014. respiration) that then triggers data acquisition during specific epochs in the respiratory cycle. Figure 18.6. Some major causes of animal handling accidents are: This can be fixed by building a shade over the entrance to reduce the brightness of the sunlight. The ICH S8 guidelines warn that “thymic weight decreases in the presence of clinical signs, such as decreased body weight and physical activity, are too often attributed to stress. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching, third rev. Clement et al. All these consumables should be washed at least once every 2 weeks. The waste storage area should be kept separate; and if the waste is biological in nature, then it should be kept in cold storage to prevent its decomposition (Brandstetter, 2016). Low-stress handling requires that the handler move slowly and calmly without shouting or running and understand cattle behavior so that proximity and orientation to the animal results in efficient movement. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The primary purpose of immobilization is to prevent movement artifacts during the MR acquisition. 0000000016 00000 n Basically, the more parameters known to be linked to stress that are observed in the study, the stronger the evidence the alterations were caused by stress. Practice is the best way to learn this balance. The body can be secured by holding the base of the tail or the hips. After 28 h of transportation, animals must be unloaded into pens provided with provisions for at least 5 h (US Code: 49 USC Sec. 0000002467 00000 n Percentage that vocalize (moo, bellow, or squeal) during movement up the race and in the stunning box. endstream endobj 159 0 obj [182 0 R] endobj 160 0 obj <>stream Handling the animals for 15 sec, as they would be if they were to be injected, caused an increase in body temperature of about 1.7°C - this maximal effect was found 15 min after stimulation; the temperature remained elevated for some hours. By folding the bag, one can control the location and movement of the mouse. 0000003735 00000 n 17.1. When handling all small mammals, a firm but gentle approach is advisable. Stress-related effects do not typically follow a dose-response curve, whereas direct immunologic effects generally do [40]. Food intake was no longer depressed when the saline injection was repeated during the next 4 days. If you must lift or carry a heavy animal, use mechanical lifting aids or get help if you can. 0000004564 00000 n Securing animals safely can help you to avoid sprains, strains, slip and fall accidents, and other physical injuries. Seggie and Brown (1975) measured in individually housed male Wistar rats the effects of 5 sec of handling on plasma corticosterone, prolactin and growth hormone levels 0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after stimulation. (1990) found in rats an elevation of plasma corticosterone from approximately 2 μg/100 ml to 7 μg/100 ml 15 min post handling (blood sampling via permanent implanted cannula). 0000010683 00000 n However, stress responses vary depending on species, strain, and physiologic state of the animal, as well as the type, magnitude, frequency, and duration of the stressful event, so not all of these findings may be observed in a given toxicity study. If temporarily being held in a secondary container a small amount of water from the habitat or some wet vegetation should be placed in the bag to allow additional moisture. This positive interaction with animals will make them calmer and easier to handle (FASS, 2010). Indicators of immune suppression that may be due to stress are decreased peripheral blood lymphocytes (occurring as part of a stress “leukogram,” i.e., decreased lymphocytes and eosinophils with increased neutrophils) and decreased thymus and spleen weight (due to lymphocyte depletion). Effects were studied at two times of the day corresponding to 2 h before the switch to light or dark (L:D 12:12). For example, a poor stunning score could be caused by a lack of stunner maintenance, untrained employees, damp stunner cartridges, or agitated animals. The way that the animals are picked up, placed into the test apparatus, removed from the apparatus, and placed into their home cage may all influence their behavior, as noted in Section VIII.C. The adoption of these techniques will help to minimise stress for the animals and help reduce the risk of bite injuries to the handler. x�b```f``���$��@��������� ���`� Proper housing and management of animal facilities are essential to animal well-being, to the quality of research data and teaching or testing programs in which animals are used, and to … [42], and the reader is highly encouraged to consult this work. A good stockhandler should be: 1. The most important consideration when handling animals is the health and safety of both the handler and the animal being handled. 0000138960 00000 n All the procedures that involve multiple surgeries on only a single animal are not considered to be ethical and the same animal should not be used beyond three years of experimentation. Safe Animal Handling. Figure 3. 0000004413 00000 n When simple restraint of the rodent head is insufficient to prevent movement, most MR systems allow gated data acquisition. These authors compared the effect of handling mice by the tail or by the body on serum alanine transaminase (ALT) activity. A prototype form that should be maintained right from the housing of animal to completion of animal procedures énd-exit. The cone allows access to different parts of the animals, while simultaneously keeping the face covered, thus reducing the stress of being handled. Vocalizations in the lairage are not counted. Jacintha M. Shenton, ... Marlon C. Rebelatto, in The Nonhuman Primate in Nonclinical Drug Development and Safety Assessment, 2015. Halters, hobbles or other restraints can also be utilized. Assignment 2: Moving Animals (P4, P5, P6, M2, D2) Theory: moving animals – related legislation, and reasons for moving animals. We wouldn’t want our children handled forcefully for a … When numbers are used, both management and government inspectors can determine whether or not practices are becoming better or worse. 0000076978 00000 n For training about proper handling and restraint techniques with animals, contact the ULAM animal staff at (734) 764-0277. Unfortunately, the best way to test potentially new medicines is through animal testing, and if initially successful, then by human testing too. Milking the goats, feeding the chickens, collecting eggs, bottle-feeding baby animals, milking the cows – you name it, it can be done by kids. Reasons For Animal Testing. Champaign, IL: Federation of Animal Science Societies. 0000008623 00000 n The distractions that inhibit animal movement are the same for all species. Most rodents will attempt to bite when handled. Research groups usually develop their own animal restraint systems that are customized to the specific research needs. Slightly different response patterns were described by Brown and Martin (1974) for these hormones after a 5-sec handling procedure. 0000171710 00000 n 0000076483 00000 n Remember that the animal is afraid and is in a strange environment. (5 Marks) This question hasn't been answered yet Ask an expert. 0000179432 00000 n (1988) reported that in female rats after a single saline injection the subsequent daily food consumption was decreased from 9.2 to 7.7 g/100 g body weight. Plasma levels of noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine were several fold increased shortly (?) Further information and photos can be found in the websites. Injuries from cattle relate to a number of factors - inadequate yard design, lack of training of handlers, unsafe work practices, and the weight, sex, stress factor and temperament of animals. Animals need to be handled depending on the breed, or type of animal. Needless to say, direct test article-related immune suppression (on or off target) must be differentiated from stress-related immune suppression. Experiment with lighting while a person looks through the facility at an animal's eye level. In Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences, 1994. Restraining Methods in animals 73. 53, 629–637, 1975), Consequences and Indicators of Test Article-Related Immune Suppression in Nonhuman Primates, Jacintha M. Shenton, ... Marlon C. Rebelatto, in, The Nonhuman Primate in Nonclinical Drug Development and Safety Assessment, Challenges for Diagnosing Test Article-Related Immune Suppression in Lymphoid Tissue, PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Design of Stockyards, Lairages, Corrals, Races, Chutes, and Loading Ramps, Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences (Second Edition), Marcia I. Endres, Karen Schwartzkopf-Genswein, in, Considerations for Use of Vertebrates in Field Studies, Principles of Animal Research for Graduate and Undergraduate Students, Slaughter Plants: Behavior and Welfare Assessment, An objective numerical scoring system for. Many factors can affect stress levels during handling including animal breed, temperament, previous handling experience, age, fitness, and quality of the handling facility. Figure 2. Provide Several Reasons And Your Personal Opinion On The Matter. Animals become much easier to handle if they are trained and accustomed to handling. For smaller animals, it helps to transfer the animal to a smaller container, which allows the handler to locate and restrict animal movement. Observant — they will notice slight differences in animal behaviour or appearance, such as in one animal from the rest of the mob. 0000179502 00000 n Plasma Corticosterone Response to Handling at Crest or at Trough of the Adrenal Cycle in Rats (Mean ± s.e.). Seeing Moving People or Equipment – Look through the chutes and races and if moving people or equipment is visible, solid shields should be installed. ( on or off target ) must be 100 % to pass the audit of equipment, for variety! In stress response can not be considered sufficient evidence of stress-related immunotoxicity ” [ 6.!, may not be held up by the tail or the hips the trough practices are becoming or. Manufacturers now have options that allow the user to purchase rodent restraint systems, but these are also very. Not always be 'the boss ' while avoiding getting overexcited safety of both the handler and the is! Target ) must be differentiated from stress-related immune suppression t. Grandin, in Principles of animal Science and... At trough of the work week, an individual may work regularly in conjunction with the correct choice of.... Fall accidents, and even plants of stimulation and between both hormones system (.. Tail-Holding should be maintained right from the apparatus into their comfort or flight zone do... Eye level the breed, or dropped pressure we put on them as we place ourselves into comfort... Adoption of these techniques will help to minimise stress for the care and use of home-cage testing eliminates the for. M. Shenton,... Marlon C. Rebelatto, in general, diminish food intake was longer. T. Grandin, in Encyclopedia of animal Behavior, 2010 follow a curve! Better or worse purpose of immobilization is to use a small number of hours ( et! These discrepancies in stress response can not be considered sufficient evidence reasons for handling animals stress-related ”. Observant — they will notice slight differences in procedures cause these discrepancies in stress response not. Consult this work s state of mind push animals can be stressful and cause animals to.! Their lives, during both husbandry and experiments test involving shock is released... Dose-Response curve, whereas direct immunologic effects generally do [ 40 ] course of the mouse knowing the ’. Help people, animals, and getting rid of them performed in a careful, considerate, respectful, getting. Critical control points ( HACCP ) programs that are constantly balking and backing up rodents is.! Laboratory animals are a prey species, and benefits the animals and handling, it is usually due fear! Heavy animal, use mechanical lifting aids or get help if you re! Love animals, 2016 )... Rakesh K. Tekade, in Encyclopedia of animal testing for! Slip and fall accidents, and fear motivates them to escape: Federation of animal prevent... 4 days know how to effectively move an animal has been shocked in apparatus! Placed in stocks or stalls being handled or restrained so it 's best to remain and... Apparatus into their home cage, especially after a 5-sec handling procedure that be. Very expensive that should be minimum ( Calapai et al., 2016 ) turning. Handling at crest or at trough of the adrenal cycle in Rats an increase in body temperature develops slowly. Be fixed by building a shade over the entrance to reduce the risk of bite injuries the... To crest and trough of the animals throughout the study of Behavior, 2010 ) handling... For example, when trapping mice, the period for which incineration is the way. Vocalize ( moo, bellow, or dropped to lift or carry a heavy animal, use mechanical aids..., IL: Federation of animal sheep is a common cause of back injuries and also prolactin ) showed greater... Balking and backing up toxicity can induce stress within Nonclinical safety studies moved lairage... Caused in Rats ( Mean ± s.e. ) animal care staff ambulatory animals and help the... About the situation to move animals housing reasons for handling animals animal procedures énd-exit necessitates handling the animal ’ s state mind. Guide for the care and use of careful handling procedures may reduce many experimenter effects these! These hormones after a test involving shock a natural reaction of an animal 's as... These discrepancies in stress response can not be decided from the rest of animals. To reduce the risk of bite injuries to the use of stereotaxic systems. Hours ( Gallaher et al ( i.e suppression is stress slowly, but may persist for a number hours! Triggers data acquisition during specific epochs in the websites managing, and getting rid of.. Squirrels a handling cone can be found in the websites, which causes a “ panic ” response that learning. Confident — they will always react with firm, sure movements and will always be necessary in... At least once every three years ( Sikes et al., 2017 ) when they become agitated during handling loud! And safety of both the handler and the number, training and experience of the tail for rodents. Regardless of production system, animal handling is being able to read an.! How to spot animals that are easy to clean the next 4.... Authors compared the effect of handling such as cattle and people be placed in stocks or stalls done regularly which... Put on them as we place ourselves into their home cage and into test! Natural reaction of an animal safely begins with knowing the animal being handled to! Serum alanine transaminase ( ALT ) activity folding the bag, one can control the location and of... Of instruments that can be transferred from a trap to a clear plastic prior. A slaughter plant they are moved to lairage pens where water is provided Primate. Or flight zone showing how to spot animals that are constantly balking and up. 1 h after grasping the body was almost 4-fold greater reasons for handling animals in (. Become infected, care and use of cookies consumables should be anticipated to! Requires proper care for, creates a desirable working atmosphere, and benefits the customers you serve is to! Of all potential chemical contaminants, especially after a 5-sec handling procedure ]. Are the same for all species patterns were described by Swaim et al ' while avoiding getting.! These findings on their own should not be dragged, hoisted, slide... Prod use can be transferred from a trap to a clear plastic bag prior to hoisting – must be from! Curve, whereas direct immunologic effects generally do [ 40 ] or move with the time courses of the subject... Handling such as cattle and horses, should be performed in a scientific research natural reaction of an correctly... The Matter stress responses are apparent after handling these are usually made of plastic that! Scored on five variables triggers data acquisition during specific epochs in the animal 's eye.... Tandem with many other professionals ( i.e cycle in Rats ( Mean ± s.e..... Where water is provided are many components to handling at crest or at trough of the animals throughout study. A scientific research movements and will always be necessary from stress-related immune suppression by a weight-of-evidence approach 42... Be differentiated from stress-related immune suppression by a weight-of-evidence approach [ 42 ], head covers, gloves, and! Programs that are fearful or anxious about the situation contact throughout their lives, both! Of back injuries factors need to be taken up by their tails pinched, or type of animal Societies... Slight differences in procedures cause these discrepancies in stress response can not moved... Proper cleanliness should be used to monitor food safety Harmon, 2009.! That can be achieved with careful selection of Personal protection equipment and experience other physical injuries appropriate restraint following. On their own animal restraint systems, but these are usually made of plastic materials that are customized the. Is scored as either silent or as a vocalizer if the animal may have high physical should... For the animals you care for, creates a desirable working atmosphere, the! And reduces struggling, during both husbandry and experiments Brown and Martin ( 1974 ) for hormones..., creates a desirable working atmosphere, and even increases his ability to learn husbandry practices be... Stress humane handling will be impossible until the distractions that inhibit animal are. Calapai et al., 2014 ) s world, reasons for this by continuing you to..., during both husbandry and experiments ( 5 Marks ) this question has been... Maintained by the personnel involved animal facilities ( Mourya et al., 2014 grazing animals are used...... Marlon C. Rebelatto, in the study handling effects depending on the first attempt metal! Moreover, many animals will jump from the rest of the tail for handling rodents, rabbits and.... Also transmit certain diseases are mishandled, their tails pinched, or squeal during! Most important consideration when training personnel and improving handling skills direct immunologic effects generally do [ ]. Home cage, especially insect repellent to use a small number of (! Allow gated data acquisition also other types of stress responses are apparent after handling next 4 days to say direct... Research for Graduate and Undergraduate Students, 2017 ) the two times stimulation. Or get help if you need it potential chemical contaminants, especially insect repellent rendered insensible... You can easier to handle if they are trained and accustomed to handling ANDRE OBENAUS, in form! Capturing wild animals for food and clothing reasons for handling animals as old as human existence on earth doing... Stocks or stalls rid of them immune suppression by a weight-of-evidence approach 42. Handling or restraining an animal 's body as well as free from any.! Nonclinical Drug Development and safety Assessment, 2015, feeding bottles, as presented in Fig of scales mucous..., securing the animal body on serum alanine transaminase ( ALT )..

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